Today's educators and K-12 students need to be information
literate: to be able to locate, evaluate, use and share information.
* So they can successfully navigate through proliferating information resources
* To improve their quality of education
* To learn additional tools to reinforce course content
* To enhance lifelong learning.
The American Association of School Librarians (AASL) has established information literacy standards for K-12 students, which are aligned with the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) information literacy competency standards for higher education. Thus, undergraduate students and teacher candidates need to learn the ACRL information literacy competencies in order to succeed in college, as well as design curriculum that insures that their own future K-12 students meet information literacy standards as defined by AASL.
California State University Long Beach has developed a
series of learning experiences that help students and teachers incorporate
information literacy into the library media program and collaborate with
classroom teachers to infuse information literacy across the curriculum.
Library Media Teacher Services Credential Program Coordinator Dr. Farmer and
University Librarians John D'Amicantonio and Tiffini Travis developed this Web site to provide Web sites
and other resources on information literacy and supportive lesson plans. All
book titles are located at
The "Big6ô" is copyright (c) (1987) Michael B.
Eisenberg and Robert E. Berkowitz. For more information, visit: www.big6.com
The assignments section lists Web sites and print resources that offer lesson plans that incorporate information literacy skills. Transcripts from the seven-part video produced by KOCE reconstruct a class research project process.
Additionally, the KOCE broadcasting station, in partnership
with Dr. Farmer and
INFORMATION LITERACY COMPETENCY STANDARDS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION
These standards apply to students in higher education.
The site details the standards, their indicators, and their role within lifelong learning.
INFORMATION LITERACY STANDARDS FOR STUDENT LEARNING
These nine standard apply to K-12 students.
From Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning, by American Association of School Librarians and Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Copyright 1998 American Library Association and Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Reprinted by permission of the American Library Association.
Well-organized and researched documents that help librarians work with teachers and families to insure that students learn and practice information skills.
The International Society for Technology in Education has developed technology standards and indicators for K-12, higher education, and educators.
Information Literacy means essentially the ability to locate, evaluate, select, use, and share information effectively.
21st century literacies shows several Generation X approaches: http://www.kn.sbc.com/wired/21stcent/information.html
Florida International University Libraries developed a selective bibliography on information literacy: http://www.fiu.edu/~library/ili/biblio.html
Another good bibliography of information literacy competencies with links to university programs, is found at: http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlissues/acrlinfolit/informationliteracy.htm
The Kansas State Department of Education aligned its information literacy standards to the American Association of School Librariansí, and developed benchmark indicators for each standard: http://www.ksde.org/outcomes/libstd52001.pdf
School Librarian Peter Milbury evaluated and gathered information literacy and library skills resources for use in school settings: http://www.school-libraries.org/resources/literacy.html
Several models of the research process, which is a core element of information literacy. Several are defined and explained in an Eduscapes web site: http://eduscapes.com/info/models.htm
TRAILS (Tool for Real-time Assessment of Information Literacy Skills) is a federally-funded project to create a standards-based, free tool for LMSs and HS teachers to assess studentsí info lit skills: http://www.trails-9.org
The supplementary video on information literacy, developed by KOCE, uses the Big6 model: http://www.big6.com/
Regardless of the model used, or aspect of information literacy addressed, the most powerful instruction and learning occurs when the teacher and librarian collaborate, each bringing his/her own expertise to the table. As they work to design effective learning activities that meet student needs, they model the kind of cooperative learning that students should undertake themselves as lifelong learners.
Information Literacy Web Sites
NATIONAL FORUM ON INFORMATION LITERACY
An international consortium of information literacy agencies and experts
DIRECTORY OF ONLINE RESOURCES ON INFORMATION LITERACY
A rich list of definitions, models, assessments, research, and tutorials
INFORMATION LITERACY ON THE WWW
DIRECTORY OF ONLINE RESOURCES FOR INFORMATION LITERACY
A federally-funded clearinghouse of resources for teaching information literacy to children
ONLINE RESOURCES FOR SCHOOL LIBRARIANS
Strong list of Information Literacy and Library Skills Resources developed by Peter Milbury and others
Information Literacy initiatives developed by academic librarians and teaching faculty
REDWOOD RESEARCH HANDBOOK
Online handbook, which may be used as a series of worksheets, designed by Lesley Farmer
INFORMATION COMPETENCY DEFINITIONS
This site provides a definition of information competency and also walks the user through the steps one needs to become information competent.
USING THE INTERNET FOR RESEARCH
Step-by-step process for planning a research project that incorporates the Internet
A person who is information literate knows how to use the library to locate information, but information literacy goes beyond knowing how to use the library's catalog or finding information in periodicals. Find out more at this site.
Information literacy articles, resources, and lesson plans
INFORMATION LITERACY TUTORIALS
Online tutorials compiled by the
INFORMATION SKILLS RESOURCES ON THE INTERNET
International Association for School Librarianship metsite
INFORMATION LITERACY - USEFUL LINKS
Sue Spence's metasite of information literacy links
INFORMATION LITERACY LINKS
Australian university librarians' links to information literacy
Many links to reference sources as well as library skills and librarianship
a. Frame the query or assignment. What am I supposed to do? What problem am I trying to solve?
b. Identify the information needed. What do I need to know? What kind of information should I gather?
This initial task is often overlooked, but is crucial for efficient research. As the process continues, this first step may need to be revisited in order to refine the information need. Some ways to define the problem include: reading the assignment carefully, asking clarifying questions, and creating specific research questions. To help identify the information needed, one can list what is already known,and then what gaps in knowledge exist. A concept map is a graphic technique to organize informational needs.
These resources are also useful when organizing their information found (step 5).
IMPROVING NOTETAKING WITH
This site uses "mind maps" to address notetaking skills. The mind maps help to focus on information and how "information relates to other information."
This software program helps the user develop a concept map or web, which can be transformed into an outline. Clip art and flowchart symbols make the map more sophisticated. A version for younger students is called Kidspiration.
A solid list of different online tools, with examples, to graphically organize ideas.
a. Identify possible sources. Where am I likely to find the answer?
b. Select the sources. Which source is best for answering the question or solving the problem?
By planning how to conduct the research, the student saves time and figures where to look for the information needed.
It is important to locate information from a variety of sources and assess specific information within individual resources. The purpose and nature of your research frames the strategy to use and the kind of sources to consult. Check the kind of sources based on the aspects of your topic. For instance, current information is likely to be found in periodicals and online databases. Geographical information is likely to be found in atlases and guidebooks. First hand information may be found in primary sources, including interviews. The best source answers the exact research question or problem at the appropriate depth and breadth.
BOOLEAN SEARCHING ON THE INTERNET
A primer on Boolean searching.
INTRODUCTION TO BOOLEAN LOGIC AND SEARCH ENGINES
Done at UC Berkeley ,this site gives the background for Boolean logic and then gives examples of how it can be used in search engines and database services.
Made by Kathy Schrock's son, this site provides a clean and simple interactive way to explain Boolean operations.
Illinois Mathematics and
EVALUATING THE QUALITY OF INFORMATION ON THE INTERNET
This commercial site focuses on evaluation factors such as objectivity, timeliness, accuracy, and authority.
EVALUATING WEB RESOURCES
EVALUATING WEB SITES: CRITERIA AND TOOLS
Updated in July 2001 this site done at Cornell examines the critical analysis of web sites as well as looking at more generic ways to evaluate.
CHECKLIST TO EVALUATING WEB SITES
As the name implies, this site gives step by step characteristics to consider when evaluating web sites.
a. Locate the source. Where can I find it?
b. Locate the information within the source? What information is within the source? How do I find it?
In the first sub-step, access tools such as catalogs and indexes are used. On the Internet, this process incorporates search engines and directories. Each source itself is arranged in some kind of order, be it alphabetical,topical, or chronological. The table of contents and index are used to extract specific information without having to read the entire volume. Online resources usually have a FIND function, which enables the user to type in a key worded locate the best part of the file.
EVALUATION OF INFORMATION SOURCES
Metasite of evaluation web sites
TUTORIALS AND GUIDES
Many good guides for finding and evaluating information
USING THE PARTS OF A BOOK (The Web Portal For Educators)
This site details the different parts of a book as well as a quiz for students to review.
USING AN INDEX FOR IN
This site details the index of books and provides aquiz for students to review.
USING TABLE OF CONTENTS (The Web Portal For Educators)
This site details the index of books and provides a quiz for students to review.
This site provides a description of see also references.
FINDING JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE ARTICLES (
Provides an illustrated view of the difference between magazines and journal articles. Provides 5-step method for finding journals and magazine articles.
FINDING ARTICLE INFORMATION IN PERIODICALS
distinguishes among different types of periodical sources
FINDING INFORMATION ON THE NET: A TUTORIAL (UC Berkeley)
This site offers general information about what the Internet is, how to find web sites, evaluation of web sites as well as citation information.
BARE BONES 101
Basic tutorial on searching the Web
SEARCH ENGINE SHOWDOWN
Comparisons and analyses of search engines
Good guides on searching the Net.
Evaluates different search tools
In-depth treatment about interviewing processes and supporting equipment
FOLKLIFE AND FIELDWORK
An introduction to ethnographic field techniques by Peter Bartis. A publication of the
HOW TO CRITIC
This site addresses issues such as author, intendedaudience, objective reasoning etc. to help determine whether an informationsource meets the needsof an assignment.
EVALUATING SOURCES OF INFORMATION
San Diego State University Library's megasite of evaluation tools for examining resources in different formats.
EVALUATION OF INFORMATION RESOURCES (Information Quality WWWVirtual Library)
A collection of links which discuss evaluation of information sources both print and web.
CRITICAL EVALUATION OF INFORMATION (Kathy Schrock)
This site is designed for use with elementary and middle school students. It provides evaluation sheets for students to fill out while looking at all types of information sources.
CRITICAL EVALUATION OF RESOURCES (UC Berkeley)
This site provides students with criteria for determining if the content of their research meets the needs of their assignment.
a. Comprehend the information: read, listen, view. How do I "get at" the information?
b. Extract the useful information? What part of the source is useful? How do I document my findings?
Start by skimming the source. What are the main ideas? What is the perspective? Is this useful for the specific task at hand? To help comprehend the information, some people photocopy and highlight important sections. Sometimes people copy an online source onto the first of a two-column word processing program, and make comments/reflections in the second column. Other ways to document the information include timelines, graphic organizers (see step 1), and spreadsheets.
This site has links to a number of citation styles:APA, MLA, AMA, Turabian and Chicago.
COPYRIGHT (CSULB Library)
This site has links to a wide variety of copyright related web pages. Some are specific to academic issues while others provide general treatment.
Thorough template for citing different types of formats
TEACHING STUDENTS TO TAKE BETTER NOTES
This site done at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln takes students through a step by step process of notetaking.
NOTETAKING WITH IN-CLASS SKILLS
This site provides a 13 step process to good notetaking.
CORNELL NOTE TAKING PROCESS
A useful way to take reflective notes.
Provides a variety of ways of developing timelines
TIMELINES TEACHING TOOL
This web site provides information on how to teach students to use timelines as well as providing appropriate links to some good timelines.
a. Organize the information. What is the logical way to put the findings together?
b. Present the information. What is the most effective way to share the findings?
Since many research projects incorporate findings from a variety of sources, a unifying method of linking data is needed. Some people use outlines; others use graphic organizers (see step one). A database can be constructed as well to identify different aspects of the issue being addressed. A major decision is choosing the format for sharing the research findings and analysis. While the teacher may define the project's parameters, the student still needs to think about several factors when producing the final product:
* audience (e.g., classmates, President)
* objective of the project (e.g., persuade, prove a hypothesis)
* type of information found (e.g., visual, statistical)
* sequence of findings (chronological, branching decisions, etc.)
Whatever the product, students need to comply with copyright laws and issues of intellectual property: giving credit where credit is due.
15,000 how-to solutions by topic.
ORGANIZING INFORMATION (Kidport.com)
This site illustrates the concepts of organization for 4th grade level students. Provides lots of examples and can easily be incorporated into a lesson plan.
Examples of project-centered applications for both students and teachers.
fun site for using and creating online activities and Web pages.
Tutorials and lessons on using MS Office products.
THE CHALLENGE 2000 MULTIMEDIA PROJECT: BUILDING BEST PRACTICES IN PROJECT-BASED LEARNING WITH MULTIMEDIA
Information about multimedia projects, curriculum, learning
activities and examples designed by
ONLINE TUTORIALS (
This site provides an online tutorial for creating Power Point presentations using Power Point 2000.
POWER POINT TUTORIAL (
A tutorial designed for faculty and students
A BIT BETTER CORPORATION
Two Web sites that give tips and techniques for using Power Point.
These commercial software programs offer easy-to-use authoring tools geared to younger students.
User-friendly guides on creating curriculum-based Web pages.
WELCOME TO FRONT PAGE 2000 (Digital Education Network)
A teacher friendly tutorial on how to use Microsoft's FrontPage to create class web sites. Designed to be easy to use and fun.
Describes and provides resources for developing WebQuests: an inquiry-based activity using Internet resources.
Helen Barrett is the leader in e-portfolio development and assessment
ERIC's online bibliography of online resources on multimedia education
THE WRITE SOURCE
The site includes links to writing topics, researchsites, MLA and APA style manuals, and Publish It!, a site where materia can be submitted for online publication.
GUIDE FOR WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS
Very helpful guidelines, well organized and easy touse; based on Modern Language Association (MLA) (
"OWL offers ... Handouts for students and teachers about general writing processes, English as a Second Language, grammar, research and documenting sources, professional writing, and writing across the curriculum incorporating writing into a variety of disciplines.
SCOTT, FORESMAN HANDBOOK FOR WRITERS
This page, from the publisher, Scott, Foresman, has links to information about writing of all types. It includes model research projects, a research guide, links to other sites on research and writing, a citation manager and exercises for practice.
ONLINE RESOURCES FOR WRITERS
A set of links to grammar, writing, dictionary, thesaurus,
foreign language dictionary, citation format, ESL, and composition and rhetoric
Computer crime and intellectual property section of the Criminal Division of the U. S. Department of Justice
Links to a rich variety of information about copyright issues.
COPYRIGHT CRASH COURSE
Good interactive FAQ about specific issues.
a. Complete the task. Did I answer the question? Did I solve the problem? Did I do the assignment fully?
b. Assess the process and the product. How could I improve?
This is probably the most important step, and should be done throughout the process so changes can be made to optimize the end result. A good way to proceed is to review each research step, and determine how successful each effort was -- and the reason for that. Many institutions use rubrics to help identify those indicators of success. status. It is also very helpful to get feedback from peers and instructors.
KATHY SCHROCK'S GUIDE FOR EDUCATORS: ASSESSMENT AND RUBRIC INFORMATION
Web page rubrics, general rubrics, articles, portfolios, report cards
Bibliography of assessment and rubric tools, many of which are linked to standards
THE ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION & EARLY DEVELOPMENT'S CURRICULUM FRAMEWORKS PROJECT
Within each curriculum area exists good lists of assessment tools and strategies
NORTHWEST REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM
Emphasis on language arts assessment
MIDLINK MAGAZINE'S RUBRICS AND HANDOUTS
Project-specific rubrics for K-12 settings and rubrics templates
INTEGRATED PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL: RUBRIC FOR ASSESSMENT
Process /product rubric for use with students
Includes information on the phases of portfolio development, different types of portfolios, and characteristics of effective portfolios
INTERNET RESOURCES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT
Extensive list of Internet assessment resources managed by the North Carolina State Office of University Planning and Analysis
The following Web sites model good lesson plans that incorporate information literacy:
BEST PRACTICES FOR LIBRARY ASSIGNMENTS
CSULB Librarian Tiffini Travis provides pointers toinstructors on instructional design that incorporates information literacy,plagiarism issues and assessment.
NORTH CENTRAL REGIONAL EDUCATION LABORATORY LESSON
This Web site is intended to help teachers write focused lesson plans. The Planner addresses essential questions that are often overlooked when planning curriculum units. Teachers bring their own content and are guided through each section by answering specific questions. The result is a comprehensive lesson plan aligned with standards that addresses assessment, content, teaching strategies and use of technology.
Lesson plans, tutorials and reference tools for K-12 teachers and students in mathematics, science, language arts and social studies.
NTeQ INTEGRATING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY INTO THE CLASSROOM
Rich collection of technology-infused lessons using the NTeQ template
GATEWAY TO EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS
One-step access to lessons, curriculum units and other educational resources.
LESSON PLANS AND TEACHING ACTIVITIES FOR SCHOOL LIBRARIANS
Lessons designed by
K12 DIGITAL CITIZENSHIP
The resources section links to lessons that focus on digital citizenship, including information literacy; there are also sample lessons and workshops targeted to different members of the school community
A searchable database of technology-rich lesson plans; this site also includes project-based lessons, WebQuests and ThinkQuests
BROKERS OF EXPERTISE
California repository of educational websites, including lessons, contributed by state educators.
Hundreds of lessons complete with worksheets and more.
PBS TEACHER SOURCE
2000 lessons searchable by grade and subject, linked to standards.
1,500+ Free Lesson Plans for PreK-12, searchable by subject.
PACBELL KNOWLEDGE EDUCATION FIRST
A deep, rich source of information on technology-infused learning activities.
Reviewed lessons, some of which link to Discovery Channel programming; includes teaching aids.
BELLINGHAM SCHOOL DISTRICT ONLINE RESEARCH INVESTIGATIONS
Online tutorials to help students develop research skills
REALISTIC DIPLOMAS WEB BASED LESSON PLANS
Links to lesson directories
ONLINE UNIVERSITY TEACHING RESOURCES
Links to lessons, arranged by subject