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Arcomano, Nicholas, "Choreography and Copyright,
Part One," Dance Magazine (April 1980), 58-59; "Choreography
and Copyright, Part Two, Dance Magazine (May 1980), 70,
Armelagos, Adina, and Mary Sirridge, "The Identity
Crisis in Dance," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism
37, 2 (Winter 1978): 129-139.
Aronson v. Baker, 43 N.J.Eq.
365, 12 A. 177 (Ch. 1888) (originality in arrangement or construction,
never challenged by critics or competitors, sufficient for copyright
protection of operetta)
"Balanchine Estate Denied Copyright On Dance Photos," New York Law Journal 194 (November 25, 1985), 1, 3.
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Barnes v. Miner, 122 F.
480 (C.C.S.D.N.Y. 1903) (copyright protection denied to stage
spectacle with no dramatic content as it was immoral)
Brady v. Daly, 83 F. 1007
(2d Cir. 1892), aff'd, 175 U.S. 148 (1899) (pantomimed
scene protected in copyrighted dramatic work)
Chaplin v. Amador, 93
Cal. App. 358, 269 P. 544 (Cal. Dist. Ct. App. 1928) (Charlie
Chaplin's unique dress, costumes, mannerisms protected under unfair
Chappell & Co., Ltd. v. Fields,
210 F. 864 (2d Cir. 1914) (copyright protection denied to motions
and postures of actors and mere stage business as no literary
Chujoy, Anatole, "It Can't Happen Now!"
Dance [Periodical, East Stroudsburg, PA] (January 1937),
Chujoy, Anatole, "New Try Made To Copyright
Choreography," Dance News 12 (February 1953), 4, 6.
Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives,
Copyright Law Revision. H.R. REP. NO. 1476, 94th Cong.,
2d Sess. (1976).
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Cook, Melanie, "Moving to a New Beat: Copyright
Protection for Choreographic Works," UCLA Law Review
24 (1977), 1287-1312.
"Copyright by Hanya Holm," Dance Magazine
(July 1965), 44.
Copyright Law of 1976, Pub.L. 94-553 (Oct. 19, 1976),
90 Stat. 2541, 17 U.S.C. '101 et seq.
Daly v. Palmer, 6 F. Cas.
1132 (C.C.S.D.N.Y. 1868) (No. 3,552) (pantomime protected by copyright
of literary work)
Daly v. Webster, 56 F.
483 (2d Cir. 1892) (pantomime protected by copyright of literary
Dane v. M. &. H. Company,
136 U.S.P.Q. 426 (Copyright Decisions, 1963-1964) (N.Y. Sup. Ct.
1963) (common law copyright protection of choreography of Gypsy
Doughty, Heather, "The Choreographer in the Courtroom: Loie Fuller and Leonide Massine," Proceedings, Fifth Annual Conference, Dance History Scholars (February 1982), 35-39.
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Ferris v. Frohman, 223
U.S. 424 (1912) (public performance does not constitute publication)
Fisher, Kathleen. "The Copyright in Choreographic
Works: A Technical Analysis of the Copyright Act of 1976,"
Copyright Law Symposium31 (1984), 1450-1490.
Flatow, Sheryl, "The Balanchine Trust: Guardian
of the Legacy," Dance Magazine (December 1990), 58-61.
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A Study of the American and English Legal Interpretations of 'Drama,'"
Duquesne University Law Review 2 (1963): 77-95.
Fuller v. Bemis, 50 F.
926 (C.C.S.D.N.Y. 1892) (stage dance by Loie Fuller denied copyright
protection as no dramatic content)
Gallini v. Laborie, 5
T.R. 242, 101 Eng. Rep. 136 (K.B. 1793) (ballet classified with
plays, even though ballets cannot be reduced to words)
Gennerich, Patricia Solan. "One Moment in Time:
The Second Circuit Ponders Choreographic Photography as a Copyright
Infringement." Brooklyn Law Review 53 (1987): 379-407.
Ginsberg, Paul D. "Choreographic Infringement
of Copyright By Still Photographs," New York Law Journal
196 (August 26, 1986), 1-2.
Harold Lloyd Corp. v. Witwer,
65 F.2d 1 (9th Cir. 1933) (voice, motions, postures of actors
not protected in copyright of dramatic work)
Horgan v. MacMillan, 621
F. Supp. 1169 (S.D.N.Y. 1985) (still photographs cannot infringe
Horgan v. MacMillan, 789
F.2d 157 (2d Cir. 1986) (photographs can infringe copyright of
Karno v. Pathe Freres,
99 L.T.R. 114 (K.B. 1908) (pantomime without a plot not protected
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Art & the Law 2, 2 (January 1976): 1, 4-5.
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of Ballet. (London: Oxford University Press, 1977).
Lee v. Simpson, 3 C.B.
871, 136 Eng. Rep. 349 (1847) (pantomime can be copyrighted)
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the Dance," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism
39, 4 (Summer 1981): 419-427.
Martin, John. Introduction to the Dance. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1939).
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McMahon, Colleen, "Choreography and Copyright,"
Art & the Law 3, 8 (January 1978): 1-2.
Martinetti v. Maguire,
16 F.Cas. 920 (C.C.Cal. 1867) (No. 9,173) (copyright protection
denied to Black Crook as immoral)
Massine v. de Basil, Copyright
Cases 1936-45 (MacGillivray) (1938) (ballet can be copyrighted
in Britain if it includes music, story, choreography)
Meyer, Barbara L., "The Copyright Question:
Some Words to the Wise," Dance Magazine (April 1961),
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on Copyright, Vol. I. (Matthew Bender, 1992).
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form, but not published)
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217, 116 Eng. Rep. 849 (1848) (changes of scenes, dress, stage
do not diminish infringement of dramatic song)
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F. 584 (C.C.S.D.N.Y. 1908) (manner of dance or posture not eligible
for copyright protection)
Seltzer v. Sunbrock, 22
F. Supp. 621 (S.D.Ca. 1938) (pantomime cannot be copyrighted without
Singer, Barbara A., "In Search of Adequate Protection
for Choreographic Works: Legislative and Judicial Alternatives
vs. The Custom of the Dance Community," University of
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Sparshott, Francis. Off the Ground: First Steps
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Tate v. Fullbrook, 1 K.B. 821 (C.A. 1908) (comparisons should include all dramatic surroundings, even though only words of dramatic piece are protected)
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Taubman, Joseph, "Choreography under Copyright
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Arts Review 10, 3 (1980): 219-256.
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Trademarks, and Copyrights of the Committee on the Judiciary,
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Wilder, Lucy, "U.S. Government Grants First Dance Copyright," Dance Observer (May, 1952), 69.
Woods, Robert W., "Copyright and Contracts:
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31 (1978): 969-978.
Wood, Sean, "Two Left Feet: Government's Tango
with Copyright and Choreography," Intellectual Property
Journal 6, 3 (September 1991): 291-312.
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