Freedom of Expression

at the National Endowment for the Arts

An interdisciplinary education project partially funded by the American Bar Association, Commission on College and University Legal Studies through the ABA Fund for Justice and Education

Site Table of Contents

This is a comprehensive bibliography of print articles on government funding of the arts. It is updated regularly. If you notice that important materials are missing, please let me know.  

Adler, Amy M. Allison,  Gary D. "The Cultural War over NEA funding: Illogical Statutory Deconstruction Erodes  Expressive Freedom." Tulsa Law Journal 34 (Winter 1999), 233-264.

Armbrust, Roger. "Supreme Court Rebuffs Artist 8-1." Back Stage 39 (July 3, 1998), 1.

"Art, Distribution & the State: Perspectives on the National Endowment for the Arts." Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 17 (1999), 705-748. [Symposium Participants: Amy Schwartzman, John Tuskey, Robert W. Peters, Hope O'keefe, Roberto Bedoya, David Cole, Marci Hamilton]

"Art for the Masses: Decency test OK for awarding grants." ABA Journal 84 (August, 1998), 46.

Backer, Larry Cata. "Symposium: A Cobbler's Court, A Practitioner's Court:  The Rehnquist Court Finds Its 'Groove.'" Tulsa Law Journal 34 (Winter 1999), 347-365. [NEA v. Finley, n. 97]

Beardsley, Monroe C. "Aesthetic Welfare, Aesthetic Justice, and Educational Policy," in The Aesthetic Point of View: Selected Essays, edited by Michael J. Wreen and Donald M. Callen (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982), pp. 111-124.

Bezanson, Randall P. "The Government Speech Forum: Forbes and Finley and Government Speech Selection Judgments." Iowa Law Review 83 (August 1998), 953-994.

Berman, Ronald. "Lobbying for Entitlements: Advocacy and Political Action in the Arts." Journal of Arts Management and Law 21 (Fall 1991), 258-263.

Betsalel, Kenneth Aaron. "The First Amendment and Public Support for the Arts: A Symposium." The Journal of Arts Management and Law 21 (Winter 1992), 329-54.

Bloom, Lackland H., Jr. "NEA v. Finley: A Decision in Search of a Rationale." Washington University Law Quarterly 77 (Spring 1999), 1-51.

Bond, Jill; Dubin, Steven C.; Hutchins, Jennifer; Pankratz, David B.; Tannenbaum, Judith. "Contemporary Art, Society, and Public Policies: A Symposium on Arresting Images: Impolitic Art and Uncivil Actions by Steven C. Dubin." Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 23 (Fall 1993), 253-272.

Brademas, John; Brown, Claudine K.; Garment, Leonard; Kellogg, Frederic R.; Levy, David; Platt, Jr., Geoffrey; Rosenbaum, Joan; Steiner, Wendy; Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane. "Fixing It: Repair and Revival of the National Endowment for the Arts," Museum News (September/October 1996), 34-41.

Bresler, Judith. "Art, Obscenity and The First Amendment." Nova Law Review 14 (1990), 357-66.

Brustein, Robert.

Burnett, David Lawrence. "First Amendment & 20 U.S.C. 954." Seton Hall Constitutional Journal 9 (Fall 1998), 173-212.

Caldwell, Christopher. "Art for Politics' Sake." Commentary 105 (February 1998), 55-57.

Caminiti, Danielle E. "Brooklyn Institute of Arts & Sciences v. City of New York: The Death of the Subsidy and the Birth of the Entitlement in Funding of the Arts." Fordham Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal 10 (2000), 875.

Campbell, Mary Schmidt. "A New Mission for the NEA." TDR (Cambridge, MA) 42 (December 22, 1998), 5.

Carlisle, Isabel. "Don't forget the humanities…the National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts." The Spectator (U.K.) April 18, 1998.

Carr, C.

Carroll, Noel. "Can Government Funding of the Arts Be Justified Theoretically?" Journal of Aesthetic Education 21 (Spring 1987), 21-35.

Casarez, Nicole B. "Public Forums, Selective Subsidies, and Shifting Standards of Viewpoint Discrimination." Albany Law Review 64 (2000), 501-581.

Cassens, Debra. " A constitutional siesta." ABA Journal (September 1998), pp. 38-39.

Chemerinsky, Erwin.

Cherian, Priya Sara. "Promoting the Arts by Dissolving the National Endowment for the Arts." University of Chicago Law School Roundtable 4 (1997), 129-147.

Choi, Alice. "National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley: A Dispute over the 'Decency and Respect' Provision." Akron Law Review 32:2 (1999), 327-350.

Cleary, Eric J. "In  Finley's Wake:  Forging a Viable  First Amendment Approach to the Government's Subsidization of the Arts." Fordham Law Review 68 (December, 1999) 965-1010.

Cockburn, Alexander. "Like coal dust, like chocolate." The Nation (July 20, 1998), p. 8.

Cohen, Carl. "Free Speech and Political Extremism: How Nasty Are We Free to Be?" Law and Philosophy 7 (1989), 263-79.

Cohen, Cecilia. "An Endangered Species? Artistic Grants as a Vehicle for the Evolution of Entitlements Law." Syracuse Law Review 49 (1999), 1277-1301.

Cole, David.

Collignon, Brian R. "Taking Into Consideration the 'Decency Clause.'"  Washburn Law Journal 38 (Summer, 1999), 929-947.

Coyle, Nancy. “Towards a More Secure Future: Reauthorization of the National Endowment for the Arts.” DePaul-LCA Journal of Art and Entertainment Law 8:2 (Spring 1998), 349-370.

Cunnane, Kristine M. "Maintaining Viewpoint Neutrality for the NEA: National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley." Connecticut Law Review 31 (Summer 1999), 1445-1483.

Danto, Arthur C.

deGrazia, Elizabeth E. "In Search of Artistic Excellence: Structural Reform of the National Endowment for the Arts." Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 12 (1994), 133-79.

Denniston, Lyle. "Decency: In The Eye Of The Beholder." The American Lawyer 20 (June 1998), 85-86.

D'Entremont, James. "Indecent Decision." The Guide (August 1998).

Devereaux, Mary. "Protected Space: Politics, Censorship, and the Arts." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 51 (1993), 207-215.

Dienes, C. Thomas.

DiMaggio, Paul, and Pettit, Becky. “Surveys of Public Attitudes toward the Arts: What Surveys Tell Us about the Arts’ Political Trials – and How They Might Tell Us Even More.”  Arts Education Policy Review 100:4 (March 1, 1999), p. 4.

Dorf, Michael C. "Foreward: The Limits of Socratic Deliberation." Harvard Law Review 112 (November 1998), 4-83 [see 69 n. 374].

Dossa, Elizabeth. "The Fate of the Arts: Why the NEA Matters to You." Strings (July/August 1996), 48-52.

Ebert, Roger. "Damned in the U.S.A." Chicago Sun-Times (March 12, 1993).

Edmundson, Mark. "Art and Imperium: Art and Government Policy." The Nation 266 (June 29, 1998), 25.

Eisenberg, Arthur N. "The Brooklyn Museum Controversy and the Issue of Government-funded Expression." Brooklyn Law Review 66 (2000), 275-308.

Elston, Michael J. "Artists and Unconstitutional Conditions: The Big Bad Wolf Won't Subsidize Little Red Riding Hood's Indecent Art." Law and Contemporary Problems 56 (Autumn 1993), 327-361.

Etzkorn, Lars. "Balancing Art and Politics: The Use of Peer Panels in United States Government Funding of the Arts." Saint Louis University Public Law Review 9 (1990), 323-342.

Faaborg, Karen. "Some Constitutional Implications of Denying NEA Subsidies to Arts Projects Under the Yates Compromise." Hastings Communication and Entertainment Law Journal 12 (1990), 397-401.

"Federal statute requiring National Endowment for the Arts to consider 'decency' and 'respect' for American 'values' when selecting grant recipients is not unconstitutional 'on its face.'" Entertainment Law Reporter 20 (August 1998).

Fein, Bruce. "Regarding Reauthorizing the National Endowment for the Arts: Statement Before the Senate Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and Humanities." Nova Law Review 14 (Spring 1990), 333-41.

Feinberg, Joel.

Feulner, Edwin. "Welfare for Artists." Heritage Foundation Commentary (June 16, 1998).

Fiss, Owen M. "State Activism and State Censorship," Yale Law Journal 100 (1991), 2087-2106.

Fleischmann, Eric. "Art and the Corporation." Art New England 13 (April 1992), 19, 50.

Flores, Craig J. "Indecent Exposure: An Analysis of the NEA's 'Decency and Respect' Provision." UCLA Entertainment Law Review 5 (Spring 1998), 251-313.

Fox, Nicols. "NEA Under Siege." New Art Examiner16 (Summer 1989), 18-23.

Fried, Charles. "The New First Amendment Jurisprudence: A Threat to Liberty," University of Chicago Law Review 59 1992), 225-253.

Fullerton, Don. "On Justifications for Public Support of the Arts." Journal of Cultural Economics 15 (December 1991), 67-82.

Garbus, Martin. "The indecent standard." The Nation. (April 13, 1998), p. 7.

Garrett, George. "Art Is Always Political When the Government Starts Giving Grants." Chronicles [Rockford Institute] XIV (June 1990), 18-20.

Garvey, John H. "Black and White Images." Law and Contemporary Problems 56 (Autumn 1993), 189-216.

Gawthrop, Daniel E. "The National Endowment for Football--We're Fighting the Wrong Battle." Arts Education Policy Review 99 (March/April 1998), 37-38.

Goldman, Alvin I., and Cox, James C. "Speech, Truth, and the Free Market for Ideas." Legal Theory 2 (1996), 1-32.

Guggenheim, Jack Achiezer. “The Evolution of Chutzpah as a Legal Term: The Chutzpah Championship, Chutzpah Award, Chutzpah doctrine, and Now, the Supreme Court.” Kentucky Law Journal 87 (1998/1999), pp. 417- 438 [see Sec. VIII on NEA v. Finley]

Hamilton, Marci A.

Harrison, Lindsay. "The Problem with Posner as Art Critic: Linnemeir v. Board of Trustees of Purdue University Fort  Wayne." Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 37 (Winter 2002), 185-206.

Hartigan, Patti. "What would NEA say about funding the Starr report?" The Boston Globe (September 18, 1998), p. D3.

Hawthorne, Donald W. "Subversive Subsidization: How NEA Art Funding Abridges Private Speech," University of Kansas Law Review 40 (1992), 437-464.

Heins, Marjorie.

Helms, Jesse. Heyman, Barry J. "The National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley:  The Supreme Court's Artful Yet Indecent Proposal." New York Law School Journal of Human Rights 16 (1999), 439-473.

Heyman, Steven J. "State-Supported Speech." Wisconsin Law Review 1999 (1999), 1119-1198.

Hoekema, David A. "Artists, Humanists, and Society." Art Journal 100 (Fall 1991), 45-48.

Hoffman, Barbara. "The Thought Police Are Out There." Art Journal 100 (Fall 1991), 40-44.

Hofland, Constance. "Constitutional Law - First Amendment - Freedom of  Speech: The National Endowment for the Arts Can Require Consideration of 'Decency and Respect' in Funding Decisions without Abridging Freedom of Speech." North Dakota Law Review 75 (1999), 893-920.

Hughes, Holly. "Statement after the U.S. Supreme Court Decision."(6/30/98)

Ita, Amy Ruth. "Censorial Community Values: An Unconstitutional Trend in Arts Funding and Access." Ohio State Law Journal 61 (2000), 1725-1753.

James, Bernard. "In Focus: Supreme Court Review." The National Law Journal (August 10, 1998), B15.

Jarvik, Laurence A.

Kamenshine, Robert D. "Reflections on Coerced Expression." Land and Water Law Review 34 (1999), 101.

Kauffman, Bill. "Subsidies to the Arts: Cultivating Mediocrity." Policy Analysis 137 (August 8, 1990).

Kim, J. Sarah. "Defending the 'Decency Clause' in Finley v. National Endowment for the Arts." Fordham Intellectual Property, Media, and Entertainment Law Journal 4 (Fall 1993), 627-662.

Kimbus, Thomas Peter. "Surviving the Storm: How the National Endowment for the Arts Restructured Itself to Serve a New Constituency." Columbia-VLA Journal of Law & the Arts 32 (Summer 1997), 139-272.

Kisliuk, Bill. "Ninth Circuit Reversal Rate Gets Closer to Normal." The Recorder (June 26, 1998), p. 1.

Kline, Matthew Thomas. “FIRST AMENDMENT: 1. Limiting Internet Access: a) Public Libraries: mainstream Loudoun v. Board of Trustees of the Loudoun County Library.” Berkeley Technology Law Journal 14 (199), 347-370. [See Section II.A. on NEA v. Finley]

Kmiec, Douglas W. "Beauty and the Eye of the Funder: Decency Conditions and Artistic Expression." Preview of United States Supreme Court Cases: 1997-98 Term (American Bar Association) 6 (March 12, 1998), 382.

Knight, Robert H. "The National Endowment: It's Time to Free the Arts." Family Research Council.

Kowalski, Karen M. "National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley: Painting a Grim Picture for Federally-Funded Art." DePaul Law Review 49 (Fall 1999), 217-273.

Leff, Thomas P. "The Arts: A Traditional Sphere of Free Expression? First Amendment Implications of Government Funding to the Arts in the Aftermath of Rust v. Sullivan." American University Law Review 45 (1995), 353-414.

Linton, Renee. "The Artistic Voice: Is It in Danger of Being Silenced?" California Western Law Review 32 (Fall 1995), 195-223.

Mach, Daniel. "The Bold and the Beautiful: Art, Public Spaces, and the First Amendment." New York University Law Review 72 (May 1997), 383-429.

Malenic, Marina. “Among the Intellectualoids.” The American Spectator (May 1999).

Mankin, Lawrence D. "Public Policymaking and the Arts."  Journal of Aesthetic Education 12 (1978), 33-44.

Manning, Richard N. "Intrinsic Value and Overcoming Feinberg's Benefit Principle." Public Affairs Quarterly 8 (April 1994), 125-40.

Mattick, Paul, Jr. "Arts and the State." The Nation (October 1, 1990), pp. 348-358.

McCarter, Jeremy. "Arts and Craft: The NEA's dubious survival strategy." The New Republic (February 8, 1999), p. 17.

McKoy, Andrea K. "National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley: First Amendment Free Speech No Longer Guaranteed for the Arts." Mercer Law Review 50 (spring 1999), 791-808.

Mellina, Linda A. "Decency v. the Arts: And the Winner Is . . . the National Endowment for the Arts?" Seton Hall Law Review 29 (1999), 1513-1542.

Meyer, Richard. "'Have You Heard the One about the Lesbian  Who Goes to the Supreme Court?': Holly Hughes and the Case Against Censorship." Theatre Journal 52 (2000), 543-552.

Miller, Tim.

Miller, Toby. "The 'black eye on the arts' takes a blow: US cultural policy in the 1990s." Culture and Policy 8 (1997), 139-150.

Moen, Matthew C. "Congress and the National Endowment for the Arts: Institutional Patterns and Arts Funding, 1965-1994. The Social Science Journal, 34 (1997), 185-200.

Moore, Frank. "Senator Helms, the NEA, and the 'Combine Plot.'" The Ethical Spectacle (March 1996).

Mowder, William J. “Two Bits for the Arts; Proposal for new funding entity.” TDR (Cambridge, MA), 43:1 (March 22, 1999), p. 9.

Mulcahy, Kevin V. and Harold F. Kendrick. "Congress and Culture: Legislative Reauthorization and the Arts Endowment," The Journal of Arts Management and Law 17 (1988), 39-56.

Murphy, Jeffrie G. "Symposium: Free Speech and Community: Freedom of Expression and the Arts." Arizona State Law Journal 29 (Summer 1997), 549-568.

Nagel, Thomas. "Public Benefits of the Arts and Humanities." Columbia Journal of Art and the Law 9 (1985), 237-239.

Nahitchevansky, Georges. "Free Speech and Government Funding: Does the Government Have to Fund What It Doesn't Like," Brooklyn Law Review 56 (1990), 213-263.

Nathan, Daniel O. "Liberal Principles and Government Support for the Arts." Public Affairs Quarterly 8 (April 1994), 141-51.

"NEA Can Use 'Decency' Standard in Making Grants." The National Law Journal (July 13, 1998), p. B13.

"NEA 'Decency Law' Held Constitutional." The Legal Intelligencer (June 26, 1998), p. 5.

Nea, Courtney Randolph. "Content Restrictions and National Endowment for the Arts Funding: An Analysis from the Artist's Perspective." William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal 2 (Spring 1993), 165-184.

Newman, Paul. "Newtonian Math." The Nation (May 19, 1997).

O'Keefe, L. Hope. "Deficit Reduction and Culture Wars: The Effect of Cuts to the National Endowment for the Arts." Public Interest Law Reporter 1 (Winter 1995), 10.

Olson, Theodore B. "First Amendment Constraints on Grant Restrictions." The Journal of Arts Management and Law 11 (Winter 1992), 308-21.

O'Neill, Kevin Francis. "A First Amendment Compass: Navigating the  Speech Clause with a Five-Step Analytical Framework." Southwestern University Law Review 29 (2000), 223-300.

O'Neil, Robert M. "Artistic Freedom and Academic Freedom." Law and Contemporary Problems 53 (Summer 1990), 177-193.

Pally, Marcia. "'Decency' in the Arts." Tikkun 6 (November 1, 1998), p. 58.

Patten, Neil C. "The Politics of Art and the Irony of Politics: How the Supreme Court, Congress, the NEA, and Karen Finley Misunderstand Art and Law in National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley." Houston Law Review 37 (Summer 2000), 559-602.

Perelman, Bob. "Must Works of Art Reflect Only Marketplace Values."Philadelphia Inquirer (February 5, 1995)

Pollitt, Katha. "Honk If You Like Art." The Nation (August 11, 1997).

Posner, Richard A. "Art for Law's Sake." The American Scholar (Autumn 1989), 513-20.

Presidential Task Force on the Arts and Humanities. Report to the President, October 1981.

Prevots, Naima. "Funding for Dance." Dance Magazine, December 1999, 100-102.

Post, Robert C. "Subsidized Speech." The Yale Law Journal 106 (1996), 151-195.

Putnam, Cara. "National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley:  the Supreme Court Missed an Opportunity to Clarify the Role of the NEA in Funding the Arts: Are the Grants a Propperty Right or an Award?" George Mason University Civil Rights Law Journal 9:2 (Summer 1999), 237-282.

Rapp, Christopher. "Chocoholic." National Review (July 20, 1998), p. 35.

Ravitz, Nancy. "A Proposal to Curb Congressional Interference with the National Endowment for the Arts." Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 9 (1991), 475-99.

Ray, Elizabeth Megan. "'I May Not Know Art, but I Know what I'll Pay For': the Government's Role in Arts Funding following National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley." University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law  2 (March 2000), 497-528.

Redish, Martin H., and Kessler, Daryl I. "Government Subsidies and Free Expression." Minnesota Law Review 80 (1996), 543-593.

Reynolds, William Bradford. "First Amendment: What content restrictions can Congress place on NEA grants?" ABA Journal 77(June 1991), 36.

Richardson, L. Anita. "U.S. Supreme Court trends." Social Education (October 1998), pp. 371-76.

Rody, Anne L. "Federal Arts Funding at What Cost? The Impact of Funding Guidelines on the First Amendment and the Future of Art in America." Fordham Entertainment, Media & Intellectual Property Law Forum 1 (1991), 175-212.

Rohde, Stephen F. "Art of the State: Congressional Censorship of the National Endowment for the Arts," Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal 12 (1990), 353-396.

Rosenfeld, Mordecai. "A Bittersweet  Controversy." New York Law Journal (September 2, 1998), p. 2.

Rosenfield, Adam D. "A Survey of Recent Developments in the Law IV. Constitutional Law." William Mitchell Law Review 25 (1999) 1065-1075. [NEA: Section B]

Rosenthal, Jay. "Music industry should rally against NEA ruling." Billboard (August 8, 1998), p. 4.

Ryerson, Andre. "Abolish the NEA: Government is incapable of detecting artistic genius," Policy Review (Fall 1990), pp. 32-37.

Sabrin, Amy. "Thinking About Content: Can It Play an Appropriate Role in Government Funding of the Arts?" Yale Law Journal 102 (1993), 1209-1233.

Safire, William. "Minding The Court's Language." New York Times Magazine (August 16, 1998), 20.

Savage, David G. "Juggling free speech, decency." ABA Journal 84 (February 1998), 37.

Schapiro, Mark. "Who's Behind the Culture War: Contemporary Assaults on the Freedom of Expression." (1996).

Schauer, Frederick. "Comment: Principles, Institutions, and the First Amendment." Harvard Law Review 112 (November, 1998), 84-120. [NEA v. Finley illustrates institutional differentiation in recent free speech analysis]

Schiller, Reuel E. "Free Speech and Expertise: Administrative Censorship and the Birth of the Modfern  First Amendment." Virginia Law Review 86 (February, 2000), 1-102. [brief mention of NEA, n. 544]

Schmaltz, Kimberly A. "National Endowment For The Arts v. Finley: Viewpoint Discrimination Masked As The Government's Foray Into the Realm of Art Patron." Northern Kentucky Law Review 26:2 (Summer 1999), 337-356.

Serra, Richard.

Shapiro, Daniel. "Free Speech and Art Subsidies." Law and Philosophy 14 (1995), 329-355.

Sher, Stephen N. "The Identical Treatment of Obscene and Indecent Speech: The 1991 NEA Appropriations Act." Chicago-Kent Law Review 57 (1991), 1107-43.

Shieldes, R. Scott. "Comment: Suturing Discourses within the First Amendment." Houston Law Review 34 (Spring 1998), 1531.

Shipley, Kim M. "The Politicization of Art: The National Endowment for the Arts, The First Amendment, and Senator Helms." Emory Law Journal 40 (Winter 1991), 241-301.

Sobel, Lionel S. "First Amendment Standards for Government Subsidies of Artistic and Cultural Expression: A Reply to Justices Scalia and Rehnquiss," Vanderbilt Law Review 41 (1988), 517-534.

"Standards for Federal Funding of the Arts: Free Expression and Political Control." Harvard Law Review 103 (1990), 1969-1988.

Sternberg, Libby. “The Art of Art Collecting.” The Weekly Standard (May 10, 1999), p. 31.

Stream, Carol. "Raunchy art ruled unprotected." Christianity Today (August 10, 1998), p. 15.

Stychin, Carl F. "Identities, Sexualities, and the Postmodern Subject: An Analysis of Artistic Funding by the National Endowment for the Arts." Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 12 (1994), 79-132.

Sullivan, Kathleen M.

Sunstein, Cass R. "Is There an Unconstitutional Conditions Doctrine?" San Diego Law Review 26 (1989), 337-345.

Taft, Gloria F. "National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley: Challenging the Facial Challenge." Campbell Law Review 21:1 (Winter, 1998), 81-97.

Taylor, Stuart, Jr. "Art and decency: The case for muddled moderation." National Journal (July 4, 1998), pp. 1552-1553.

The identical article has been published under different titles in these publications:
Tofte, Brenda L. "'Baby It's Cold Outside:' The Chilling Effect of the Decency Clause on the Arts in the Aftermath of National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley." Hamline Law Review 22:1 (Fall 1998), 303-352.

Tushnet, Mark. “The Possibilities of Comparative Constitutional Law.” Yale law Journal 108 (April 1999), 1225-1309 [see especially, Sec. III.A., on NEA v. Finley]

Van Camp, Julie.

Wagner, David. "Supreme Court scorecard." Insight on the News (July 27, 1998), pp. 18-20.

Walther, Harold B. "National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley: Sinking Deeper into the Abyss of the Supreme Court's Unintelligible Modern Unconstitutional Conditions Doctrine." Maryland Law Review 59 (2000), 225-251.

Warren, Sarah F. "Art:  To Fund or Not to Fund?  That is Still the  Question." Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 19 (2001), 149-181.

Weinstock, Pamela. "The National Endowment for the Arts Funding Controversy and the Miller Test: A Plea for the Reunification of Art and Society." Boston University Law Center 122 (1992), 803-24.

Weisberg, Jacob. "The Jesse Helms Ballet: Dance of Death at the National Endowment for the Arts." Slate (April 26, 1997).

Whelan, Victoria Rebecca. "Governmental Benefits Conditioned on the Relinquishment of Constitutional Rights." Suffolk Journal of Trial & Appellate Advocacy 5 (2000), 225-243.

Will, George F. "The Art of  Funding." Newsweek (July 6, 1998), p. 78.

Winters,  Gary A. "Unconstitutional Conditions as 'Nonsubsidies': When Is Deference Inappropriate?" Georgetown Law Journal 80 (October 1991), 131-161. [limited consideration of NEA funding]

Wolff, Beverly M. "Government Funding of the Arts: Content-Based Regulations and Unconstitutional Conditions." Columbia-VLA Journal of Law & the Arts 15 (1991), 47-73.

Wolff, Beverly M., Richard Epstein, Kathleen M. Sullivan. "The Samuel Rubin Forum-Arts Funding and Censorship: The Helms Amendment and Beyond." Columbia-VLA Journal of Law & the Arts 15 (1991), 23-45.

Wypijewski, JoAnn. “Comic Relief, NEA-Style.” The Nation 268:14 (April 19, 1999), p. 32.

Zelinsky, Edward A. "Are Tax 'Benefits' Constitutionally Equivalent to Direct Expenditures?" Harvard Law Review 112 (December 1998), 379-433. [Discussion of NEA v. Finley, 427-430]

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Last updated: July 4, 2005